A Calendar Bias for Biblical Time
(Revised 2015)

By: Shawn Richardson

Section 16:


1. "Holy Bible," New King James Version, http://www.biblestudytools.com/nkj/
2. "Holy Bible," Young's Literal Translation, http://www.biblestudytools.com/ylt/
3. "Dictionary for King James Bible," Strong's, http://www.htmlbible.com/sacrednamebiblecom/kjvstrongs/
4. "Concordance with Hebrew and Greek Lexicon," Strong's, http://www.eliyah.com/lexicon.html
5. "Babylonian Talmud," Baba Mezia 59b, http://www.come-and-hear.com/babamezia/babamezia_59.html
6. "The Calendar of Christ and the Apostles," Carl Franklin - Christian Biblical Church of God, http://www.cbcg.org/franklin/cal_of_christ_part1_revised.pdf
7. "Committee Concerning the Fixing of the Calendar," Volunteers for the Sanhedrin Initiative Online, http://www.thesanhedrin.org/en/index.php/Category:Committee_concerning_the_fixing_of_the_Calendar
8. "Crescent Moon Visibility and the Islamic Calendar," US Naval Observatory, http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astronomical-applications/astronomical-information-center/cres-moon-islamic
9. "Encyclopaedia Judaica," Vol. 12, p. 1039
10. "Examination of Mr. Armstrong's 1940 Good News Letter," from How to Figure the Passover, Bill Bratt http://www.zoomnet.net/~bbratt/hwa-pass.html
11. "First Council of Nicaea," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Council_of_Nicaea
12. "God's Sacred Calendar 1986-1987," Herbert W. Armstrong - Worldwide Church of God, p. 2
13. "Barnes New Testament Notes," from The Gospel According To Luke, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/barnes/ntnotes.vi.vi.i.html
14. "The Great Creator's Calendar Debate," Glenn McWilliams - Torah Keepers - http://www.aroodawakening.tv/calendar/calendar_debate.php
15. "Growth and Development Guide for Spring," P.M. Anderson, E.A. Oelke, and S.R. Simmons - University of Minnesota, http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/Cropsystems/DC2548.html
16. "Accuracy," from Hebrew Calendar, AllExperts Encyclopedia, http://en.allexperts.com/e/h/he/hebrew_calendar.htm
17. "Hebrew Calendar (Second Temple)," Wikia Encyclopedia, http://calendars.wikia.com/wiki/Hebrew_calendar
18. "The Hebrew Calendar," John Ogwyn - Living Church of God, http://www.cogwriter.com/hebrew-calendar-postponements.htm
19. "The Hebrew Calendar Doctrinal Paper," United Church of God, http://www.ucg.org/papers/hebcal.pdf
20. Richards, E. G. (1988), "Mapping Time: The Calendar and Its History". Oxford University Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-19-286205-1, https://archive.org/details/mappingtimecalen00rich
21. "Hilal," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilal_%28god%29
22. "Hillel II," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hillel_II
23. "Hoshana Rabbah," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoshana_Rabbah
24. "Islamic Calendar," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_calendar
25. "Jewish Calendar," Judaism 101, http://www.jewfaq.org/calendar.htm
26. "The Jewish Calendar," Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D., http://www.friesian.com/calendar.htm#jewish
27. "Karaite History," Karaite Korner, http://www.karaite-korner.org/history.shtml
28. "The Last Great Day," from Bible Study Course Lesson 12 - God's Festivals: Keys to Humanity's Future, United Church of God, http://www.ucg.org/bsc/12/lastgreatday.htm
29. "Month," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Month
30. "New Moon," Jewish Encyclopedia, http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=240&letter=N
31. "New Moon," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_moon
32. "Rambam and the Seasons," Dr. Irv Bromberg - University of Toronoto, http://www.sym454.org/hebrew/rambam.htm
33. "'Rectifying' the Hebrew Calendar," Wapedia Encyclopedia, http://wapedia.mobi/en/Hebrew_calendar?t=6" target="_blank" class="bluelink">http://wapedia.mobi/en/Hebrew_calendar?t=6
34. "The Re-established Jewish Sanhedrin," TheSanhedrin.org, http://www.thesanhedrin.org/en/index.php/The_Re-established_Jewish_Sanhedrin
35. "Rosh Chodesh," Judaism 101, http://www.jewfaq.org/chodesh.htm
36. "Rosh Chodesh," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosh_Chodesh
37. "Rosh Hashanah - New Year," Encyclopedia of Judaism, http://www.answers.com/topic/rosh-hashanah
38. "Rosh Hashanah," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosh_Hashanah
39. "Secular vs. Religious New Year," N.S. Gill, http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/numeralscalendar/a/aa032001a_2.htm
40. "Simchat Beit HaShoeivah," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simchat_Beit_HaShoeivah
41. "Summary of Hebrew Calendar Doctrinal Paper," United Church of God, http://www.ucg.org/papers/hebcal_summary.pdf
42. "Tammuz (Deity)," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tammuz_%28deity%29
43. "Why Do We Use the Hebrew Calendar?," Ronald L. Dart - Born to Win Ministries, http://www.borntowin.net/newsite/LearningCenter/DisplayTemplate.aspx?who=e&id=64
44. "Comprehensive Hebrew Calendar (revised)," Arthur Spier, p. 1, View on Amazon.com
45. "FIG Fruit Facts," California Rare Fruit Growers, http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/fig.html
46. "Shavuot," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shavuot
47. "Gregorian Reform of the Calendar: Proceedings of the Vatican Conference to Commemorate its 400th Anniversary," 1582-1992, ed., G. V. Coyne, M. A. Hoskin and O. Pedersen, http://galileo.rice.edu/chron/gregorian.html
48. "Pharisees," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharisees
49. "A Hebrew Gospel of Matthew," Dr. James D. Tabor, http://religiousstudies.uncc.edu/people/jtabor/shemtovweb.html
50. "The Hebrew Yeshua vs. the Greek Jesus - New Light on the Seat of Moses from Shem-Tov's Hebrew Matthew," Nehemia Gordon, Hilkiah Press 2005, pp. 47-48
51. "Hoshanah Rabbah," Encyclopedia of Judaism, http://www.answers.com/topic/hoshana-rabbah
52. "Did God Give a Calendar?," Leon Walker - United Church of God, http://www.ucg.org/holidays-and-holy-days/did-god-give-calendar
53. "Ba'al," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baal
54. "Adonis," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adonis
55. "Allah," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allah
56. "Shulchan Aruch," Orach Chayim 2:4
57. "Domestication of Plants in the Old World," Daniel Zohary, Mar Hopf, https://books.google.com/books?id=C1H6_XWJS_gC
58. The Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition, HarperCollins Publishers, 2005, http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/New+Moon
59. "Holy Bible," American Standard Version, http://www.biblestudytools.com/asv/
60. Orthodox Jewish Bible, https://www.bible.com/bible/130/psa.81.ojb
61. Abib FAQ, Karaite Korner, http://www.karaite-korner.org/abib_faq.shtml
62. Abib (Barley), Karaite Korner, http://www.karaite-korner.org/abib.shtml
63. Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The Origin and Spread of Cultivated Plants in West Asia, Europe, and the Nile Valley (3rd ed.), Zohary, Daniel; Maria Hopf (2000), Oxford University Press. pp. 59-69. ISBN 0-19-850357-1
64. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen, McGee, Harold (1986). Unwin. ISBN 0-04-440277-5
65.OMER, Jewish Encyclopedia. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/11699-omer
66.Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.), Oxford University Press. September 2005. http://oed.com/search?searchType=dictionary&q=new+moon
67.Hebrew Language: Root Words, Judaism 101. http://www.jewfaq.org/root.htm
68."12-hour Clock," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/12-hour_clock
69.Hebrew Roots and Patterns, Virtual ULPlan, http://www.ulpan.net/hebrew-roots-and-patterns
70.Tigay, Jeffery H. (1998). "Shavua". Mo'adei Yisra'el: Time and Holy Days in the Biblical and Second Commonwealth Periods (Heb.), ed. Jacob S. Licht: pp. 22-23. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Week
71."Zoroastrian calendar," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoroastrian_calendar
72."Jonathan David Brown," Wikipedia Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonathan_David_Brown
73. "The Chronological Gospels: The Life and Seventy Week Ministry of the Messiah," Michael Rood, p. 3, View on Restoration Down Under
74. "The Early Roman Calendar," Encyclopædia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/science/calendar/The-early-Roman-calendar
75. "'World's oldest calendar' discovered in Scottish field". BBC News. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2023. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-north-east-orkney-shetland-23286928
76. Matthias, Meg. "Why Do We Drop a Ball on New Year’s Eve?". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 4 February 2021. Retrieved 24 November 2023. https://www.britannica.com/story/why-do-we-drop-a-ball-on-new-years-eve
77. Anderson, Michael. "Time Zones In The Modern World". GeoJango Blog. 25 January 2021. Retrieved 24 November 2023. https://geojango.com/blogs/explore-your-world/history-of-time-zones
78. Prerau, David. "Seize the Daylight: The Curious and Contentious Story of Daylight Saving Time". Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 978-1-56025-655-7. https://archive.org/details/seizedaylightcur0000prer
79. Unknown Author. "Time Ball: What time does the time-ball drop at Greenwich?". Greenwich Mean Time. https://greenwichmeantime.com/articles/history/timeball/
80. "International Date Line," Wikipedia Encyclopedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Date_Line
81. "Atomic Clock," Wikipedia Encyclopedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_clock
82. "A Short History of the Jewish Fixed Calendar: The Origin of the Molad," J. JEAN AJDLER, p. 134. class="bluelink">https://hakirah.org/vol20Ajdler.pdf
83. Unknown Author. "Yom Tov Sheni". Peninei Halakha. https://ph.yhb.org.il/en/category/12/12-09/#:~:text=One%20who%20moves%20to%20Eretz,to%20keep%20Yom%20Tov%20Sheni


Supporting reference material:

Observable calendars as documented by encyclopedia:

Some groups that keep observed calendars/feasts:


Calculated vs. Observed Times and Seasons - A response to John Ogwyn; Shawn Richardson - http://www.shawnrichardson.com/Calculation-vs-Observation.htm
Biblical Calendar of Observation vs. Calculation - A response to United Church of God; Shawn Richardson - http://www.shawnrichardson.com/ResponseUCOG.htm
Keeping God's Appointed Feasts; Shawn Richardson - http://www.shawnrichardson.com/KeepingGodsFestivals.htm
Testimony of Timekeeping Within Dual Torahs; Yavonne Hinton - http://www.shawnrichardson.com/TestimonyofTimekeeping.htm
Mathematical Bias and God's Ordained Calendar (Original Version) by Shawn Richardson

ABOUT THE AUTHOR (Shawn Richardson)

From his preteen years, Shawn Richardson has endeavored to consciously live according to Yehovah's principles as depicted within scripture, from both the Tanakh and New Covenant, which he believes the Torah serves as the foundation of truth and serves as the sole tangible source of corroborating divine authority within any doctrine. His education includes a Master of Science degree in Computer Information Systems technology and a Bachelor of Business Administration in Management of Information Systems. During that time, he served as a Senator for Student Government, Recording Secretary, and member of the Phi Theta Kappa Honor Society, was named on the Vice President's Honor Roll seven times and twice on the National Dean's List. As a member of the Worldwide Church of God, he was a member of the Youth Leadership Club where he also served as President for one year.

Shawn's career led him into the financial industry where he has functioned for over twenty-five years as a systems analyst primarily providing enhancements within mainframe systems and in robotic process automation and other various software that interacts with those legacy systems. He has also served as a Senior Supervisor and Technical Lead managing teams and is currently working as a Systems Analyst for Sammons Financial Group companies.

As an analytical thinker, Shawn often views Biblical scripture from a systematic and investigative approach following a predefined set of rules that the original writings, contained within the Bible, were inspired directly by the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob - whose name is Yehovah. A name that expresses the true character and nature of God Himself as being eternal and never changing. His Word serves as the ultimate moral compass of righteousness and desires that all mankind atone for their sins and partake within the salvation provided by His Son, Yehoshua. Ye'shua, as He is also named, has also been with Yehovah for all eternity and was the creator of all things in this universe. He has served as the physical interaction of the Heavenly Father, through the emanating power of His Spirit, throughout all of history and in His ministry here on Earth. It is Ye'shua who is destined to return to this earth, once again, to establish His Kingdom and millennial reign to pay respect and to revere the majestic power of Yehovah Himself and where, ultimately, all of mankind will be resurrected and given the opportunity to serve Him and eventually stand final adjudication to be given eternal life.

For more information, check out Shawn's general website here.

Download full-version PDF document

<< Previous Section (CONCLUSION)
GO TO SECTION: Index | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16

This work may be reproduced only in its entirety and without cost to its recipient outside of reproduction and delivery.